The regime was fast ap- proaching a phase where brute political repression was at an all-time low although this would reemerge in the late s and a growing emphasis was put on indirect supervision through cultural enterprises. By the mids the situation started to reverse. Internal documents from that time describe the growing resistance of many to take part in activities imposed upon them within different institutions.
This lack of interest was compoun- ded by newly found alternatives. The general improvement in the eco- nomic situation and the new Law of Association widened the choice of cultural associations available to women. A large number of the women who made a name for themselves during that period were initially trained under the supervision of the SF, but the organization itself was losing its monopoly in this area. Over time, however, the organization proved unable both ideologically and structurally to meet the changing needs and aspirations of thousands of Spanish women.
While some had come to see the SF as too radical, for others it was not radical or innovative enough. During the late 18th and early 19th century three schools of physical activity emerged in Europe: the German, Swedish and the British School.
It was less leisurely and was mostly practiced in gymnasiums. German gymnastics was closely associated with the formation of German nationalism. Muth and Jahn developed a system of drills turn , which emphasized the importance of physical strength and the use of different apparatus such as ropes, bars and so forth. The Swedish school emphasized accuracy and style and called for a high level of discipline and attunement between the individual and the group.
Hall p. Mosse ; R. Crego Melnick However, as each of these schools responded to somewhat different concerns in terms of morality and physical health they were soon adapted within different social and ideological contexts. It was only natural, perhaps, that a stronger emphasis was put on the German school, which was highly dominant amongst instructors with prior military background. In the case of women the Swedish school carried the day. Such rationality is achieved only when physical exercise is executed in order to comply 24 For more on the three schools and their implementation in Europe see: R.
Naul, in K. Hardman Agosti, in F. Abandoning such a gift, not taking care of it using the best measures offered to us by science, constitutes ingratitude. However, the greatest contradiction inherent in its policies surfaced when a woman athlete truly stood out. This process is too limited and centers on institutional and structural aspects.
We need to act further on the [ Following the Civil War the demographic perspective gained ground and the entire debate on the issue of physical education was conducted within the limiting boundaries of a deeply Catholic discourse. By presenting a more youthful and attractive facet of the regime and positioning its members as intermediaries between different female populations as well as public and private institutions, the organization proved its usefulness far beyond that of other organs within the Falange.
Caminar a la playa del Postiguet o la playa de la Albufereta es de 30 minutos. They were very helpful regarding tips on walks around the island and more importantly with food and drink recommendations! WiFi is available in all areas and is free of charge. Purchase your tickets on line. Unfortunately I didn't meet Colin or their dog, but Richard couldn't have been more helpful and friendly in making sure I had everything I needed! The dramatic reinvention of Antonio Canova. So quiet as well which is crucial for troubled sleepers as us: We would definitely come. Se va no a ver. While Athletic Club is not a national team in the technical sense — it does not represent a state, it is not recognized by FIFA — its localist cantera policy has established it as an arbiter of Basqueness. Casa Cumbre Villanueva del Conde. Lugares para conocer gente la nucia vida dedicada al ajedrez.
What little information can be 33 F. Forging an Organic N ation SIBA 4 49 found has to be gathered from local studies that focus mostly on the experiences of PE instructors and to a lesser degree on those of some practitioners who took part in sporting activities over time. A series of oral interviews that were conducted with 24 women who practiced sports overtime during the years of the dictatorship pointed to the importance of the SF in promoting physical education and in funding installations for the practice of sports.
And obviously physical education classes seemed to us a bit like a boring routine at the time. There were hardly any exercises. But I knew many [female] basketball players and none of them was a tomboy. They were beautiful girls, but people had this concept of women athletes, they did not look on us favorably. She must be clean and look clean.
She must keep her hair short and if she does not she must arrange it in an appropriate manner when teaching. Gimeno Marco, R. Llopis Goig, G.
Text not highlighted originally. Following the completion of her training she was assigned to the same school from which she graduated ten years earlier. The headmistress was a young nun and a former classmate of hers. When at the end of the year she organized a display of her ten-year-old students. One of the exercises included a series of handstands. According to M. At the end of the day she was informed by the headmistress that as impressive as the display was her students would henceforth refrain from performing handstands in public.
This type of work is not the work of the [instructors] but rather of the provincial delegate. It is she who has to approach the headmistress and reach an agreement, without resorting to threats. Interview with the author Madrid, And when I gave a class of gymnastics I had to change in a hurry in whatever corner they set aside for me.
Furthermore, in a society where the majority of women had no access to higher education becoming a PE instructor provided meant that they could go on with their studies. According to Manrique Arribas doing so within the ranks of a political entity such as the SF was looked upon more positively than simply becoming a teacher or bank employee One of her most vivid memories was of the French students: The French girls wore bikinis during swimming classes. During training, when the professor herself was in the pool, they changed to a one-piece bathing suit but as soon as she came out — not when the class was over but when the professor stepped out of the pool — they put their bikinis on again.
Manrique Arribas PE instructors taught girls and young women how to care for their bodies and exercise muscles no one even dared to speak about. As a result a space was created where short and relatively attractive uniforms, collective undressing and showering were considered legi- timate. The fact that we are all women does not mean we should forget our moral obligations Under no conditions must men be allowed into the dressing rooms, even when all players are fully dressed.
The instructors taught several generations of Spanish girls and women born after the Civil War how to nurture and even publicly expose their bodies. Such teachings, anchored as they were in a more open and progressive perceptions of the human body, were not always compatible with the existing moral code. What can I tell you?
I had a problem with that. The SF stressed the importance of maternity, and consequently the need for women to retire from certain spheres of action. At the same time women were encouraged and often forced to take part in an array of projects aimed at national regeneration including re-education and political indoctrination ini- tiatives, demographic campaigns and the equivalent of an obligatory military service for women.
The physical wellbeing of women was tied to the physical and moral wellbeing of the nation itself. During other, less radicalized periods, demographic and moral dictates carried the day. In Spain young women and girls participated in several mass demonstrations throughout and but this type of public exposure was not sustained in later years.
In order to compensate for the lack of funding the organization created a nationwide network of classes and of sporting teams that operated under the most rudimentary conditions. Under these conditions the more open and innovative physical culture promoted by the SF served to differentiate it from other more conservative elements within the regime. In conclusion, much work is still needed in order to assess the impact of physical education policies during the Franco regime on different target populations such as urban and rural school students, workers, university students etc.
While not all of the women who would go on to become PE instructors were necessarily adherents of the regime they willingly became its agents within schools and youth movements. In doing so they taught several generations of girls and young women how to nurture, take pride and even publicly expose their bodies in the only manner considered acceptable in a conservative and a highly chauvinistic society. Bailey, Richard. Carrero Eras, Luis. Caspistegui Gorasurreta, Francisco Javier. Crego, Robert. Sports and Gam es of the 18 th and 19 th century.
Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled W om en, Italy Berkeley: California University Press, Hall, Margaret Anne. Peterborough: University of Toronto Press, Hargreaves, Jennifer. Sport and Modern Social Theorists. London: Palgrave Macmillan, Manrique Arribas, Juan Carlos. Melnick, Samantha. Mosse, George. Naul, Ronald. Essen: Hofmann, Brighton: Sussex University Press, Van Ingen, Cathy.
The title of the biography uses the diminutive of his name, Arturito. According to his biographer, Jeroni Bergas, when he died in , he was still Arturito in Spanish popular memory. Why and how Arturito Pomar never became Arturo are the questions that I ask in this text. Ke y w o rd s : Arturo Pomar, chess, media, Francoist celebrity, nationalism.
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